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2\ 



FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS. 

I RfCCCi VCD 

& MAY 7 1938 & 



ISSUED WEEKLY BY - ... 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT CF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICSf 



LATE CABLES. 



Vol. 36 May 7, 1938 No. 18 



Argentine corn harvesting progressing, with *"* c 

conditions only average to poor as result of too much g eg w 

rain. Field work for sowing small grains and linseed > g 

O 50 M 

in full swing; soil in very good condition. (Inter- *< rfl 

national Institute of Agriculture, Rome.) 

o 

=3 

Present prospects indicate 1938 prune crop £a > 

will be relatively light in Yugoslavia and Rumania ^ so 

but normal or better in Bulgaria. On this basis, o o 

total Danube Basin exportable surplus of prunes ^ §£ 

fresh and dried may not greatly exceed small 1937 ^ £3 

volume. (Paris office, Bureau of Agricultural Ecc- '*=" g 

nomics . ) 0 

Sydney wool sales closed May 5, with keen 
general competition. Values, compared with opening 
of series April 26, ruling in sellers' favor. (Ag- 
ricultural Attache C. C. Taylor, London.) 



For information on- 



United States Trade in Meat Products, see pp. 263-265. 
International Trade in Cotton, see pp. 266-269. 
Agricultural Export Index Numbers, see p. 270. 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 36, No, 18 



Pol and lifts embargo on grain exp orts 

The prohibition of wheat, rye, and oat exports from Poland, in 
force since April 1937, was canceled by a decree of March 28, 1938, it 
is reported "by the United States consul at Warsaw. Faced "by the pros- 
pect of short grain crops in 1937, the Polish authorities placed an 
embargo on exports of wheat, rye, oats, and products from these crops, in 
order to reserve supplies for domestic consumption. Originally decreed 
for the period April 7 to July 31, 1937, the prohibition was later extended 
until July 1, 1938. Small quotas were permitted in the fall of 1937, 
however, at the insistence of the large landowners, for the announced 
purpose of keeping domestic prices at world levels. These quotas, which 
were placed at 1,772,000 bushels for rye, 919,000 bushels for wheat, and 
689,000 bushels for oats, were not filled, probably because it is dif- 
ficult for Polish grain to compete in world markets unless supported by 
the bounties formerly paid on grain exports. Increased exports are not 
expected this season, but the cancelation of the prohibition will permit 
Polish exporters to reestablish their foreign markets by the beginning 
of the 1938-39 marketing season. 

Winter grains sown for the 1938 crops were officially reported 
to be above average in condition on March 15, in marked contrast to the 
poor condition report of the corresponding date of 1937. The most 
promising crops, this season are found in central Provinces. Conditions 
are also satisfactory in the western and southern areas. The crops of 
the eastern sections were retarded in the fall of 1937 by lack of 
moisture; consequently they show the least favorable development. 

Netherlands increases monopoly tax on grai ns 

The monopoly tax imposed in the Netherlands on imports of wheat, 
barley, oats, and corn has been increased by 0.50 florin per 100 
kilograms (12.6 cents per 100 pounds), as of April 3, making the pres- 
ent tax 1.50 florins per 100 kilograms (or about 38 cents per 100 
pounds), according to the United States consul at The Hague. The in- 
crease was authorized because of the continuous decline in grain prices 
during recent months and is expected to provide about 7,000,000 florins 
($3,900,000) for the Agricultural Crisis' Fund used by the Netherlands 
to aid agricultural producers. This increase will be offset to a con- 
siderable extent, however, by a reduction of the crisis levy on stigar 
and other compensatory changes in taxes on several similar products. 

Frost damage in Europe severe 

Earlier reports of severe frost damage to fruit crops in Europe 
have been confirmed by cables from the London and Berlin offices of the 



May 7, 1938 



Foreign CrcpB and Markets 



261 



Bureau cf Agricultural Economics. Reports received "by these offices 
from reliable, unofficial sources in England, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
Germany, Switzerland, France, and in the Italian and Austrian Tyrol in- 
dicate that berry crops, stone fruits, and early pears have been 
seriously damaged by the cold wave. Late pears and apples also 
suffered injury, possibly serious in certain districts, although it is 
too early for a full appraisal of the damage since these fruits were in 
the bud stage.. Continued cool, cloudy weather is delaying bee activity, 
and many sections fear poor polonization. 

Smaller plantings of table potatoes in Canada 

A possible decline of 5 percent in table-potato plantings in 
Canada, for 1938 was indicated by a report released by the Canadian 
Department of Agriculture and published in the Weekly Crop and Market 
Report of April 29. Total intentions tc plant as of March 31 were re- 
ported at 505,200 acres compared with 531,200 acres in 1937. Plantings 
of seed potatoes were reported at 37,870 acres compared with 30,378 
acres in 1937, or an increase of 25 percent. Most of the increase oc- 
curred in New Brunswick where 17,000 acres have been planted, or almost 
double the acreage of last year. Plantings in Prince Edward Island 
were placed at 14,000 acres compared with 15,438 acres in 1937. 

Heavy reduction in exports of Valencia onions 

Exports cf onions from Valencia, Spain, for the season ended 
April 30 amounted to only 324,000 cases compared with 840,000 cases in 
1936-37 ajid an average of 1,517,000 cases in the five preceding seasons, 
according to the Weekly Fruit Intelligence Notes, London. Practically 
all of the exports in recent years have gone to the United Kingdom. The 
reduction in exports is attributed to the civil war in Spain. 

World lemon production slightly downward 

The world production of lemons averaged about 22,500,000 boxes in 
the decade ended with 1936, according to a report entitled, "Statistics 
Relating to Lemons and Limes," released by the Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics this week, copies of which are available. Italy and the United 
States are the principal producers. Production has tended slightly 
downward in the past few years because of smaller crops in Italy. Pro- 
duction of lemons in the United States is increasing. Exports from the 
principal producing countries averaged a little more than 8,000,000 
boxes in the past 10 years. 

The commercial world production of limes, which centers in Mexico 
and the West Indies, amounts to slightly less than 1,000,000 boxes a 
year. Production in Mexico is increasing, but crops in the West Indies 
declined for more than 20 years as a result of disease and have only re- 
cently started to increase. 



262 



Foreign Crops and Marxists 



Vol. 3b, No. 18 



More bo-s on feed ih Hungary • 

'.'Reports 'from Hungarian f aritrs on January 1, 193«, indicated that 
the number of hogs on feed would be considerably larger during the first 
6 months of this year than in the same per i<5d- "of 1-93 7, it is reported 
by the Danuba Basin office of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 
More than 4,000 farmers and commercial feeding establishments, with 
306,000 head of hogs, submitted reports compared with 7,200 farmers and 
establishments with 249,000 head on January 1 a year earlier. Of the 
•306,000 hogs reported on feed, 238,000 were of the lard type and 68,000 
of the meat type. On January 1, 1937, the figures were 202,000 and 
47,000, respectively. The favorable hog-feed ratio in Hungary since 
the 1937 harvest is responsible for the heavier feeding operations. 

Increased feeding of hogs in Hungary' has been reflected in larger 
exports of both live and dressed hogs, as well as of lard. Most of these 
exports were marketed in neighboring European countries, principally 
Germany and Austria. 



DANUBE BAS IN : Exports of lard and hogs, 1934-1937, 
January-February 1937, .1938 



Item and year 



Lard 

1935 . . 

1936 . . 

1937 . . 
. .Jan. -Fe 

1937 
1938 
Dressed h 



1935 . . 

1936 .. 

1937 . . 
Jan.-Fe 

1937 
1938 

Live hogs 

1935 ... 

1936 ... 

1937 . . . 

Jan. -Feb 

1937 . 

1938 . 



Hungary 


: Yugoslavia 


: Bulgaria 


: Rum an ia 


Total 


1,000 

pounis 


1,000 ; 
pounds 


rv~< / 1 
j. j ■ • .'.< 

p O'XTl.iS 


3 -, r 00 : 

tjou nd s 


1,000 
pounds 


42 , 535 
46,424 


10,013 : 
19,713 ; 
: 18,771 : 


215 
2 , 464 
3,124 


24 

: 2,070 : 
; . 7,652 


63,455 
66,782 
: 75,971 


4,874 
6,796 


: 5,640 : 
5,438 : 


203 : 
0 : 


1,444 
443 : 


12,161 
12,677 


25,623 
87,619 ; 
6,133 


7,472 ' 
15,339 : 
: 10,880 


: 24. 

3,335 
; .4,387 


: 3,160 : 
: 8,115 
2,257 


36,279 
54,408 
: 23,657 


86 
7,515 

Head 


5,173 
3,327 ; 
Head ; 


587 
2,021 : 
Head 


: 2,024 : 

426 
Head 


7,870 
13 , 289 
Head 


183,147 ; 

175,403 

165,292 


218,035 
301,012 • 
189,69 7 . 


983 
18,816 
29,425 


: 140,831 ; 

203,924 
307,164 ; 


542,996 
693,155 
691,578 


17,582 
31 , 420 


; 58,561 : 
: 36,656 : 


682 
8,752 


22,111 : 
24,719 : 


98,936 
101,547 



Danube Basin office, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 



May 7, 1938 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



263 



Un ited States trad e in meat products 

Though total cattle imports into the United States in March 1938 ex- 
ceeded those of each of the 2 preceding months "by nearly 50 percent, they 
were some 6,000 head "below the corresponding 1937 imports. Imports of "both 
quota and nonquota cattle this year have "been consistently below comparable 
1937 imports. Only in the most important class of quota cattle, those weigh- 
ing over 700 pounds, excluding dairy cows, has the reduction been marked. For 
the first 3 months of 1937, imports of this class amounted to 64,000 head; for 
the same months of 1938, they totaled less than 25,000. 

In the cattle trade so far this year, imports from Mexico have been 
maintained at levels little below those of last year, not only of the heavy 
quota cattle but also of all other types. Imports from Canada, on the other 
hand, have been far below those of 1937, by 71 percent for heavy slaughter 
cattle and by 28 percent for calves (both concession items under the trade 
agreement with Canada). Imports from Canada of 700-pound slaughter cattle, 
at 14,000 head, were only 36 percent' higher than imports of the same class 
from Mexico. Imports of dairy cows and of calves weighing less than 175 
pounds, though smaller than those of last year, continued to come almost en- 
tirely from Canada. 



UNITED STATES: Imports of cattle and beef, and domestic slaughter of cattle 

and calves, all on dressed-weight basis, and average farm price of beef 
cattle. 1928-1938 





■ < ' = — 

: Imrorts a/ 


Federally 




Average 
per 






Dressed -weight basis 


inspected 


: Perpent 




■ Cattle 






, 1U OcUL 

Other ; cattle 
beef | and 
| beef 


slaughter 


: imports 


pound 


Year 


j (duti- 
: able) 
b/ 


Cattle 
(duti- 
able) 
■ h/ 


Canned 
beef 


of cattle 
and calves, 
dressed-wt . 
basi s 


are of 
inspected 
slaughter 


farm 
price of 
beef 
cattle 






1,000 


1,000 


1,000 i 1,000 


1,000 








Head 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds: pounds 


pounds 


Percent 


Cents 


1928 


517,150 


135,215 


105,476 


57,774 298,465 


4,727,008 


6.3 


9.12 


1929 


410,656 


129,213 


159,797 


50,727 -339,737. 


4.727,582 


7.2 


9.15 


1930 


226,273 


49,697 


112,210 


19,459 !l81,366 


4,704,316 


3.9 


7.46 


1931. . . . 


85,570 


17,797 


39,172 


3,494 j 60,463 


4,751,470 


1.3 


5.31 


1932 


95,407 


19,200 


49,278 


1,697 : 70,175 


4,394,048 


1.6 


4.07 


1933 


63,329 


9,829 


82,688 


970 j 93,487 


5,045,914 


1.9 


3.63 


1934 j 


57,679 


11,091 


93,348 


1,149 105,588 


5,602,186 


1.9 


3.88 


1935 


364,623 


105,009 


152,526 


10,248 267,783 


5,167,023 


5\2 


6.21 


1936 


399,113 ! 


127,075 


175,607 


6,200 "308,882 


5,969,908 


5.2 


5.85 


1937 c/. j 
Jan . -Mar .: 


494,945 • 


153,600 


176,174 


6,592 336,366 


5,374,285 


6.3 


6.96 


1937. . : 
_1938. . . 


142,149 
88 » 554 


49,459 
24.169 . 


23,615 
24.350 


1,528 : 74,602 
701 : 49,220 


1,308,139 
1.304.846 


5.7 
3.8 


6.59 
5.95 


Compiled 


frpm official sources. 


a/ Imports for 


consumption; 


includes 


free for 



use as ships' stores, b/ Does not include cattle from Virgin Islands, c/ Pre- 
liminary. 



364 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 36, No. 18 



The reduction in imports during the first quarter of 1938 as com- 
pared with. January-March imports of a year earlier is, in part at least, 
a reflection of the lower "beef and cattle prices prevailing in the United 
States this season. Imports of "beef and veal in forms other than live 
cattle were not noticeably different from those of the January-March pe- 
riod of 1937. Total imports of all forms constituted a considerably 
smaller percentage of the slightly reduced domestic slaughter than they 
did in 1937. 



The trade of the United States in pork and pork products during 
the first' quarter of 1938 is in line with the return to a supply situation 
more nearly normal than has existed for several years. Net exports of 
pork for the first 3 months of the year amounted to more than 10 million 
pounds, whereas in the same period of 1937 the United States had a net 
import balance of 4.5 million pounds. Exports of lard were nearly three 
times as large as they were a year ago and represented about 18 percent of 
total production as against 8 percent of a nuch smaller production in 1937. 
Prices, as well as trade, show the effect of increased supplies. Prices of 
American refined lard at "both Liverpool and London so far this year aver- 
aged lower than they have at any time since the latter part of 1934. The 
trade in pork products, other than lard, continues to represent only a 
small part of domestic production. 

UNITED STATES: Imports and production of pork, excluding lard, 
and avera ge farm prices of h og s. 1938 to 1938 



Year 



Imports a 



Earns, 
should- 
ers and 

bacon 



Pork, 
fresh 

or 
..frazen 



Pork, 
pickled, 
salted & 
ot he r 



Total 



Production of Percent 



pork meats 
under 
Federal 
inspection cj 



imports 
are' of 
produc- 
tion 



Average 

farm 
price 

of 
hogs 



1928. 
1929. 
1 1930 . 
1931. 
1932. 
1933. 
1934. 
1935. 
1936. 
1937 d/ 
Jan . -Mar 

1937. 

1938. 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



2,537 
2,084 
1,980 
1,979 
3,015 
1,672 
969 
5,297 
26,088 
47 , 422 



7,767 
4,124 
1,093 
754 
1,650 
539 
182 
3,923 
12,945 
20.877 



1,000 
pounds 
2,526 
2,314 
1,583 
1,234 
1,075 
703 
495 
1,274 
2,810 
6,532 



1,000 

pounds 



12,830 
8, 522 
4,656 
3,967 
5,740 
2,914 
1,646 
10,494 
41 , 843 
74,831 



1,000 

pounds 

6,189,495 

6,023,286 

5,638,487 

5,707,530 

5,680,395 

5,932,128 

5,395,287 

3,493,838 

4,737,148 

4,215,634 



Percent 



0.21 
0.14 
0.08 
0.07 
0.10 
0.05 
0.03 
0.30 
0.88 
1.76 



Ce nts 
~8.5Q 
9.33 
8.78 
5.83 
3.44 
3.94 
4.17 
8.36 
9 .30 
9.48 



Compiled fr 
for use as 
all of dres 
into lard. 



13,056! 5,545: 933 i 19,534: 1,203,886: 1.62 : 9.25 
10,899! 1,722: 1,237 : 13,859: 1,281,430; 1.08 j 7.89 
om official sources, a/ Imports for consumption; includes free 
ships' stores, b/ Actual weight oasis, c/ Pork meats include 
sed hog carcass after excluding head bones and all fat rendered 
d/ Preliminary. 



May 7, 1338 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



265 



UNITED STATES: Exports of pork, excluding lard, 1923 to 1936 



Exports 



Year 


* ocuup 

• Tl 

ifinniil r\ c~ t* o 
, ciiULLLiluI o 


Bacon and 
sides 


Canned . 


■ 

Pickled 


Fresh 


Total 

w 


arf of 

oroduc t*. on 





| 1 , 000 


1,000 


. 1,000 


1 , 000 


1 , 000 


1 , 000 






: Dounds 
* 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


sounds 


Percent 


lr2o 


: 124,149 


124,130 


14,624 


33 , 402 


11,413 


307,318 


4.37 


i 029 


• 125,797 


149,321 


18 , 618 


44,787 


, 13,533 


352,062 - 


5.85 


1930 


i 120,170 


96,764 


22,175 


30,628 


17,573 


267,331 


5.10 


1931 


i 84,865 


38,409 


20,447 


15,789 


3,547 


163,077 


2,36 


1932 


! 65,218 


18,957 


15,842 


15,259 


5,133 


123,409 


2.17 


1933 


78 , 580 


21,590 


.19,722 


16,608 


14,410 


150,310 


2.54 


1934.. 


65,104 


18,521 


21,227 


12,395 


36,753 


150,035 


2.97 


1935 


55,380 


6,311 


15,464 


8,276 


10,203 


95,633 


2.74 


1936 


42,163 


4,562 


14,431 


10,520 


2,747 


74,423 


1.57 


1937 c/ 


39,860 


2,933 


12,953 


9 ,0O9 


4,238 


63,064 


1.64 


Jan. -Mar. 
















1937 

1933 


7,545 
10 1 932 


769 
2 , 063 


l;§!§ 


1,356 
3! 119 


1,455 
3 , 135 


15,025 
.24,13 ) 


1.25 
1.88 



basis except canned, which has been placed on dressed-weight basis, cj Pre- 
liminary. 



UNITED STATES: Lard exports and production, 1328 to 1336 



Year 



Exports 



Great 
Britain 



Germany 




Others ! Total 



Production 



Percent 
exports 
are of 
production 



1328... 
1329. . . 
1330. . . 
1331. . . 
1332. .. 
1333. . . 
1334.. . 
1935.. . 
1336. . . 
1337 a/ 
Jan. -Mar . 

1337.. 

1333 c/ 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
nounds 



235, 616 
242,027 
238,388 
250,876 
236,306 
235,652 
231,150 
64,525 
63,547 
75 , 258 

10,266 
33, 922 



179,853 
214,933 
111,847 
132,977 
157,942 
126,181 
26,608 
1,544 
6,572 
2,370 

w 

463 



1,00( 
rounds! 
17,383 
17,750 
13,207: 

3,588; 

5,74-4 

1,882; 

5 , 35? 
64$ 

2,903 

2,i3:i 
603! 

21?; 



1,000 
p ound s 
63,606 
80,005 
68,083 
44,313 
22,036 
10,306 
26,346 
24,235 
31,011 
41 , 353 

8 , 304: 
12,729; 



i , ooo ; 

pounds 
243 , 252 
274,612 
210,361 
131,354 
124, HQ 
141 , 509i 

31,775; 
5,40$ 
6,9531 

14,756 

1,40' 
5,42 



1,000 
•oounds 



753 , 722 
823 , 328 
642,485 
568 , 708 
546,202 
579 , 132 
431,237 
96,355 
111,232 
135,350 

20, 563 
52,785 



1,000 




pounds 


Percent 


1,743,749 


43 


1,763,143 


47 


1,521,160 


42 


1,554,018 


37 


1,573,460 


35 


1,679,272 


34 


1,340,795 


32 


662,060 


15 


932,169 


! 11 


767,433 


17 


233,351 


8.6 


286,863 


16.4 



Compiled from official sources, 
c/ Exports include neutral lard 



a/ Preliminary. W Less than 500 
from January 1, 1338. 



pounds. 



INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN COTTON 

Exports of cotton from six major exporting countries during the 
first 7 months* (August -February) of the 1937-38 season totaled 7,212,000 
bales, or about 863,000 bales less than exports from these countries 
during the comparable months. of the 1936-37 season. The sharp decline 
in exports from British India, which was partly offset by larger ex- 
ports from the United States, accounted for most of the decrease. 
Cotton exports from British India during this period were approximately 
1,066,000 bales below those of the first 7 months of last season. There 
have also been decreases in exports from Egypt and Argentina, while ship- 
ments from Brazil and Peru showed little change. On the other hand, ex- 
ports from the United States were approximately 400, 000 bales higher 
than those of the same months of 1936-37. The United States supplied 
63 percent of world cotton exports from August through February of the 
, current season against 51 percent a year ago, while British India sup- 
plied only 11 percent as compared with 23 percent of the world total 
during the same period of 1936-37. 

United States ; Exports from the United States this season 
totaled 4,528,000 bales, an increase of 10 percent over comparable 
exports of last year, but 24 percent less than the average for the 10 
years from 1923-24 to 1932-33. The gain was accounted for by the 
relatively high level of shipments during the first 6 months. In 
Eebruary and March, exports dropped below those of the same months of 
1937. 

Europe took approximately 1,000,000 bales more cotton from the 
United States during the first 7 months of 1937-38' than in the cor- 
responding period of last year, but exports to Japan' declined by about 
770,000 "bales. The United Kingdom ranked first as a purchaser of 
American cotton, taking 1,375,000 bales, or 53 percent more than last 
season, 

B ritish India; Exports from British India during the first 7 
months of the current season totaled 786,000 bales, compared with 
1,842,000 bales last season and an average of 1,426,000 during the 
comparable months of the years 1923-24 to 1932-33. While exports to 
virtually all of India's important markets declined in 1937-38 in com- 
parison with 1936r-37, the major part of the decline occurred in shipments 
to Japan. These amounted to 300,000 bales as against 1 ;il6, 000 bales 
during the same months of 1936-37* 

Egypt ; Exports from Egypt, totaling 1,150,000 bales during the 
August-Eebruary period of the current season, were about 9 percent be-' 
low those of last year but were approximately 200,000 bales, or 20 per- 
cent, above the 1923-24 to 1932-33 average. While exports to the United 



May 7, 1933 



foreign Crops and Markets 



257 



INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN COTTON, CONT'D 

Kingdom were somewhat below the 1935-37 figure, they practically dupli- 
cated tne 10-year average of 384,000 bales. Export s from Egypt to 
virtually all of the continental European countries increased in 1937-38 
over last year, but exports to Japan showed a sharp decline, from 
175,000 bales during the first 7 months of last season to 45,000 bales 
during the comparable months of this season. 

South American countries : Exports from Brazil during the first 
7 months of the 1937-38 season have been estimated at 542,000 bales, or 
about the same as last year's figure of 549,000 bales. They showed, how- 
ever, a sharp increase from the 1923-24 to 1932-33 average of only 71,000 
bales. Exports from Peru, totaling 191,000 bales for the period August- 
February 1937-38, were practically unchanged from last year but about 
53 percent above the 10-year average. Because of an extremely short crop 
in Argentina, exports during 1937-38 totaled only 15,000 bales, in com- 
parison with 119,000 bales in 1936-37 and an average of 40,000 bales for 
the 10-year period from 1923-24 to 1932-33. 



COTTON: 


Summary of 
1923-24 to 


world export 
1932-33 and 


s, average, 
1934-35 to 


August-February, 
1937-53 




Quantity 


Exporting 
countries 


Average 
1923-24 

to 
1932-33 


1934-35 


1935-36 


1936-37 


1937-38 




1.000 tales 


1,000 bales 


1,000 tales 


■ 1 , 000 tales 


1,000 tales 


United States 
British India 

Argentina. . . . 


5,950 
1,426 
960 
71 
125 
40 


3,412 
1,310 
1,075 
485 
173 
68 


4,638 
1,416 
1,170 
332 
217 
106 


4,108 
; 1,842 
1,268 
! 549 
189 
119 


4,523 
786 
1,150 
a/ 542 
191 
15 


Total 


3,572 ' 


5.523 


7,879 


8,075 


7,212 






? 


srcentage of 


total 






Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


United States 
British India 

Fgypt 

Brazil 

Peru 

Argentina 


69 
17 
11 
1 
2 

w 


52 
20 
17 
7 
3 

i. 


59 
18 
15 
4 
3 

: 1_ 


51 

i 23 
16 

: 7 
! 2 
l 


63 
11 
16 
7 
3 

V 


Total 


IOC 


IOC 


100 


100 


100 



Compiled from official sources. 

a/ Exports for January estimated at 45,000 bales and for February 50,000 
bales. 

by Less than 0.5 percent. 



268 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 1, No. 18 



INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN COTTON 



COTTON: Destination of exports from the principal exporting countries, 
average 1923-24 to 1932-33 and seasons 1935-36 to 1937-38 a/ 



Destination 
of exports 
from principal 
exporting 
countries 



E xports from the 
U nited States to 

Germany* 

United Kingdom 

France . . 

Italy. . . 

Spain. . . 

Belgium. 

Netherlands 

U. S. S. R. 
(Russia) d/ . 

Sweden 

Portugal 

Poland & Danzi 

Other Europe . . 
Total Europe 

Canada. ....... 

Japan 

China 

British India. 

Other countrie 
Total. 
British India to 



Japan. . . 
Italy... 
China. . . 
Belgium. 
Ge rmany . 
United Kingdom 
France . . 
Spain. . . 
Netherlands. . . 
Other countries 
Total 



Augus t-February 



Average 
1923-24 
to 

1 932-33 



1 , 000 
hales 
1,398 
1,379 

. 683 
489 
216 
140 
105 



44 
31 
13 
Jl5_ 



4.61i 



137 
942 
203 
43 
10 



704 
168 
132 
99 
98 
87 
56 
30 
19 
_23_ 



1,426 



Quantity 



1935-36 



1,000 
b ales 
584 
1 , 040 
594 
265 
163 
142 
57 

0 
63 
43 
203 
76 



3.936-37 



3,250 



176 
1,165 

33 
7 
27 



4,638 



765 
58 
11 
92 
115 
190 
71 
32 
16 
66 



1,416 



1,000 
bales 

476 
895 
615 
244 

130 

68 

1 

63 
26 
136 
79 



.734 



200 
1,122 
11 
5 

_36 



108 



116 
88 
8 

137 

80 
233 

60 



V 



24 

96 



.Ll842_ 



1937-38 



1,000 
bal e s 
617 
1,375 

691 
393 
0 

156 
102 

V 

70 
27 
165 
165 
3,761 



171 

353 
6 

146 
91 



4.528 



300 
56 
37 
66 
73 
114 
35 
b/e/ 
e/ 11 
~ 94 



786 



Percentage of total 



Average 
1923-24 

to 

1 9 32-33 



Percent 



23 
23 
11 

8 
4 
2 
2 

1 

1 
1 



c/ 



78 



2 
16 
3 



100 



49 
12 
9 
7 
7 
6 



100 



1935-36 



Percent 



13 



1936-37 



Percent Percen- 



70 



4 
25 
1 

c/ 

IL. 



100 



54 
4 
1 
5 
8 

13 
5 
2 

1 

6 



100 



12 
22 
15 

6 

I 

3 
2 



67 



5 
27 
oj 
II 

1 



100 



61 
5 

ll 

7 
4 
13 

3 

c/ 

1 

6 



100 



* Includes shipments through the free port of Bremen, much of which is afterward 
shipped to other countries. According to German official trade returns, imports o 
American cotton for consumption in Germany amounts to 210,000 bales in August- 
February, 1937-38; 110,000 bales in 1936-37; and 310,000 bales in 1935-36. 



May 7, 1938 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



269 



I NTERNAT I 0NA1 TRADE IN COTTON, CONT'D 



COTTON: Destination of exports from the principal exporting countries, 
average 1923-24 to 1932-33 and seasons 1935-36 to 3,937^-33 



Destination . 
of exports 
from principal 
exporting 
countries 



Augus t- 1 e b rua ry 



Quantity 



Percentage of total 



. Average 








Ave rag r i 
















1923-24 








to 


x^3o-3c 


1936-37 


1937-38 


to 


1935-36 


ltf3c-37 


19o7-3o 


. lyoc— co 








1932-33 








i 1 , 000 


1 , 000 


1 , 000 


1 , 000 










' bales 


bales 


bales 


bales percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


: 364 


407 


445 


383 


40 


35 


35 


33 


; 125 


153 


136 


164 


13 


14 


11 


14 


i 111 


38 


45 


25 


12 


3 




2 


: 56 


107 


89 


128 


7 


9 


7 


11 


63 


70 


62 


75 


7 


• • 6 




7 


44 


73 


175 


45 


5 


6 ' 


' 14 


4 


43 


40 


54 


56 


4 


3 




5 


: 31 


f/ 


±J 


f/ 


3 


. 








: 30 


64 




1 


3 




0 


4 


: 19 


45 


49 


37 


2 


4 




3 


15 


44 


53 


92 


2 


4 


E 

13 • 


8 


8 
21 


24 
95 


20 
130 


24 
118 


1 
1 


2 

Q 


9 


2 
11 


: 960 


1,170 


1,268 


1,150 


100 


100 


: : : 


l: ; 




166 


169 






50 


31 






6 


66 






2 


12 






S5 


189 






26 


34 






15 


15 






4 


3 






6 


30 






2 


5 






24 


26 






7 


5 






7 


12 






2 


2 






3 


12 






1 


«s 






20 


16 






6 


3 






0 


14 






0 






! rJ 7i 


3:<2 


549 




100 


100 


loo : h/ 



Reports fron 

feypt to 

United Kingdcn. . . 

France 

United States . . . . 

Germany 

Italy 

Japan 

Switzerland 

U.S.S.R. 

(Russia) 

Spain 

Czechoslovakia. . . 

British India. . . . 

Poland & Danzig.. 
Other countries. . 

Total 

B razil to 

Germany 

Japan 

United Kingdom. . . 

Netherlands 

Italy 

France 

Portugal 

Poland 

Belgium- Luxem . . . . 

Other countries. . 

To tal , 



i/ Bales of 478 pounds net except for the United States which are in bales of 500 
pounds gross, b/ Less than 500 bales, c/ Less than 0.5 percent, d/ Beginning 
January 1, 1935, includes Russia in AsiaT e/ Six months, August- January. fj If any, 
Included in "Other countries", g/ No data available by countries, h/ Detailed 
statistics for January and February not yet available. 



270 



Vol. 1, No. 18 



UNITED 



IS AGHOULTUEAL EXPORT INDEX NUMBERS l/ 



The index number for the yhlume of farm products exported during 
the first 9 months of this season (.July 1937-March 1938) stands at 75, 
as compared with 5S during the comparable period of 1936-37. While all 
groups of agricultural commodities shared in the gain in exports, the 
increase in wheat and wheat flour and in other grains and grain products 
was particularly striking. 



UNITED STATES: Index numbers of the volume of agricultural exports, 
adjusted for seasonal "variations, March 1936, with comparisons 
.• (July 1909 - June 1914 - 100) 



Commodity or commodity group 



February 



•1937 


IS 3 3 


1936 


1937 


■1938 


1936-37 


1937-38 




1 62 


85 




57 


: 79 


56 


75 


All commodities j except cotton. 


i 42 


113 


41 


36 


; 94 


40 


80 


Gotten fiber, incl. linter's. . 


1 ?3 


62 


64 


77 


; 71 


67 


71 


Tobacco, unmanufactured a/ 


: 85 


124 


105 


88 


•120 


109 


125 




; 274 


260 


258 


177 


'312 


221 


237 


Wheat , including flour 


'• 23 


157 


21 


23 


•147 


19 


.94 


Grains and grain products. ..... 


; 23 


238 


19 


21 


•171 


19 


121 




: 9 


13 


9 


11 


; is 


12 ... . 


14 




: 10 


36 


25 


16 


34 


20 ■ 


38 



March 



July-March 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, a/ Includes stems, trimmings, etc. b/ Includes bacon, hams, - 
shoulders, and sides, c/ Beginning January 1, 1938, includes "neutral 
lard." 



Foreign markets have taken almost five times as much wheat and 
flour as last season and more than six tines the quantity of grains and 
grain products that they took last season. Although the volume of lard 
exports remains small in comparison with earlier years, the quantity ex- 
ported thus far this season is almost twice that exported during the 
comparable months a year ago. Export shipments of cured pork have shown 
a more moderate advance over last season. Exports of both lard and cured 
pork will probably gain in volume when the increased supplies resulting 
from the large feed crops of 1937 are brought on the market. The sea- 
sonal index numbers for cotton, tobacco, and fruits all shewed appreciable 
increases over the first 9 months of 1936-37. 

The monthly index of farm exports stood at 79 in March as compared 
with 85 in February. In comparison with February, exports of cotton, 
fruits, and pork showed an increase in March, but shipments of lard, un- 
manufactured tobacco, and the grains, such as wheat, flour, and corn, 
dropped "below those of the preceding month. 



±j The detailed trade statistics will appear in next week's issue. 



May 7, 1933 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



271 



COTTON: Price per pound of representative raw cotton at Liverpool, 
April 29, 1933, with comparisons 



Growth 



1938 





March 








April 




11 


■ 18 


. 25 


1- 


8 


14 a 


/: 22 


29 


Gents 


:Gonts 


^ents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


juSri \j s 


Cents 


10.55 


il0.53 


10.27 


10.16 


9 .91 


10.17 


10.26 


9.97 


8.99 


• 8.98 


8.72 


8.60 


8.35 


8.61 


j 8.70 


8.42 


17.53 


jl7.25 


15.92 


15.71 


16.63 


15.73 


15.70 


15.29 


12.64 


12.51 


12.40 


12.31 


12.00' 


12.15 


12.19 


11.99 


9.72 


: 9.70 


9.44 


9.33 


9.08 


9.33 


: 9.43 


9.14 


10.45 


10.42 


10,16 


10.05 


9.80 


10.06 


■10.15 


9.87 


8.47 


• 8.38 


8.15 


8.15 


7.94 


8.21 


j 8.27 


8.19 


9.03 


• 8.94 


. 8.72 


8.71 


8.50 


8.67 


j 8.73 


. 8.64 


7.74 


; 7.55 


7.23 


7.28 


7.07 


7.23 


j 7.29 


7.00 




14.66 


14.19 


14.09 


13.84 


14.12 


14.21 





Fair) 



American - 

Middling 

Low Middling . . 
Egyptian (Fully Good 
Sakellari 
Uppers 
Brazilian (Fair) 
Ceara 

Sao Paulo. . 
East Indian - 

Broach (Fully Good) 

C.P.Oomra Ho.l, Superfine 

Sind (Fully Good) 

Peruvian (Good) - 

Tanguis 



. . . . . 



....... 



Converted at current exchange rates. 

a/ Thursday's price due to holiday, Friday, April 15. 

UNITED STATES: Exports of cotton to principal foreign markets, 
annual 1935-35 and 1935-37, and the season 
August 1 - April 28, 1935-37 and 1937-38 a/ 



Country to 
^aich exported 


-t3 " ,' 

Year ended July 31 


'August 1 - AT»ril 25 


1935-35 


1936-37 


1935-37 


1937-38 




1,000 hale? 


1,000 bales 


l.CCO bales 


1,000 bales 


1,466 
2,935 


1,220 
2,587 


1,071 
2,250 


1,524 
2,698 




4,402 
1,548 j 
333 


3,807 
1,592 

330 


3,331 
1,421 
286 


4,222 
581 
471 




6,233 
243 


5,779 
259 


5 , 038 
208 


5,274 

223 


Total excluding linters 


6,040 


5,520 


4,830 


5,051 



Compiled from .the Weekly Stock and Movement Report, Few York Cotton Exchange, 
a/ Includes linters. 



272 



foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 36, Ho, 18 



BUTTER: Sew Zealand grading, 1937-38 season to April 23, 



with CGflrQ&risons 
Date : 1935-36 • - : 1936-37 : 1937-38 



■ 1>PQP poonds j 1 ,000 pounds : 1 ,000. pounds 

Week en ded j : : 

August 1- January 29, \ " 207,9 50 S 216,827 j 208,247 

February 5. »..« j~ 9,134 : 10,136 j 8,120 

12 ...... Yi., •! 8,798 : 9,520 j 8;064 

19....../...! 8,843 , ; 8,960 j 7,616 

26 : 8,064 ■ j 8,624 ■ • j 8,400 

Monthly total.. . . , 34.844- ; 37.24£) '• 32^200. 

March 5... .......... : 7,784 ] 8,064 7,672 

12 ;, 7,952. 8,002 ; 7,952 

19 . # | 7,336- : • 7,672 ; 7,000 

26 L_ 6,440 I 6^228^ L__ 6,496 

Monthly total...., \ 29 .512 - : ■ > . ■ 30^066 • • • j -29 ,120. 

April 2.. ■ 6,440 7,056 5,499 

9.... ...j 5,600 i 6,406 | 4 ( 760 

16. ,;«..,.,,.,, -5, 656 • . ';' 6 ,216 1 3,864 

23 : 4.704 . 5.712 j ■ 4.480 

Total to April 23... ; 294,706. j 309,523 • • I 288,170 



Agricultural Attache C. C. Taylor, London. ■ 

BUTTER: Australian grading, 1937-38 season to April 16, 
w ith comparisons 

Date ; 1935-36 ; 1936-37 : 1937-38 



: It 000 pound s \ 1,000 pou nds j 1,000 pound s 

Week ended j ; ■ 

July 1-January 29... j 15 2, 444 j 1 12,135, j 1 34,676 

February 5,-. ........ \ 7,101 : " 5,761 j . -6,559 

12......,...: 6,303 : 5,678 . ! . 6,718 

19..........: 6,196 : 5,032 : 6,471 

26 i 5,889 : 4,787 . j 6,290 

Monthly total. . . . . j 25,4 8 9 j 21,258 ; 26,038 

March 5 ............. ■ 4, 601 j 5,398 j ' 5,799 

12............,; 4,027 | 4.995' ' j 5,304 

19. ....... i 3,799 j 4,329- • j 4,449 

26 3,774 j 4,4 00 j 3,898 

Monthly total..... : 16 ,201 j , 19,122 ■ : 19,450 

April 2. ............ : 3,761 : 4,178 ■ ,1 3,212 

9 ..; 2,773 ; 4,200 ' -3,109 

16 : 3>076 :' 3.6 44 ; ' 3.124 

Total to April 16... : 203,744 164,537 • 188,609 

. — . •. <. . 

Weekly Dairy Eroduce Notes, Imperial Economic Committee, London. 



May 7, 1938 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



273 



BUTTER: Prices per pound in New York, San Francisco, Copenhagen 
and London, April 26, 1938, gith comparisons 



Market and description 



April 29, 
1937 



April 21, 
1938 



< April 28, 
*1938 



New York, 92 score... . 

San Francisco, 92 score 

Copenhagen,' official quotation 



London: 

Danlsho '. . . . . 
Nov Zealand. 
Dut ch . . 



Cents 

34.0 
33.0 
19.7 



25.5 
24.0 
23.7 



Cents 

26.8 
26.0 



28.5 
28.0 
27.8 



Foreign ' prices converted at current r?tes of exchange. 



Cent s 

26.8 
26.0 
22.5 



28.5 
28.6 
28.0 



LIVESTOCK AND MEM: Frice per 100 pounds in specified European markets, 
April 27, 1938, with comparisons a/ 



Market and item 



Germany: 

Price of hogs, Berlin 

'Price of lard, tcs., Hamburg 

United Kingdom: b/ 

Prices at Liverpool, first 
quality - 
American green bellies.... 
Danish Wiltshire sides.... 

Canadian green sides 

American short cut green 

hams 

American refined lard 



Arril 28, 

1937 



Dollars 



16.79 
12.70 



17.09 
20.95 



20.93 
14.59 



TCeek ended 



April' 20, 
~ 1938 



Dollars' 



17.23 
10.20 



15.05 
23.75 
20.85 

20.41 
11.12 



April 27, 

" 1933 



Dollars- 



17.23 
10.14 



14.81 
24.09 
20.82 

20.41 
10.93 



Liverpool quotations are on the basis of sales from importer to whole- 
saler . 

a/ Converted at current rate of exchange, 
b/ TTeek ended Friday. 



2~jk Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 36, No. IS 



Index 



Page 



Late cables 259 

Agricultural exports, index 

numbers, U.S., March 1933 270 

Beef, imports, U.S., 1923-1938 ; . . . 263 
Butter: 

Gradings: . . 

Australia, Apr. 16, I93S 272 

New. Zealand, Apr. 23, 1938.... 272 
Prices, specified markets, 

' Apr. 28, 193S 273 

Cattle: 

Imports, U.S., 1923-1938. ...... , 263 

Prices, U.S., 1928-1938 263 

Slaughter, U.S., I928-I938 263 

Citrus fruits, production, 

world, 1927-1936 26l 

Corn, harvest conditions, 

Argentina, May 1933 259 

Cotton: 

Exports, U.S., Apr, . IV 1938. . .. 271 

International trade, 

Aug. -Feb. 1937-33 266 

Prices, U.K., Apr. 29, I938..... 271 

Fruits, frost damage, Europe, 

April 1933 260 

Grain: 

Export embargo lifted, Poland, 

March 28, 1933..... 260 



Page 



Grains, Cont'd: 

Monopoly tax increased, 

Netherlands, Apr. 3, 1933 260 

Hogs: 

Exports, Danube Basin, 

•*: 1935-133S 262 

Feeding operations, 

Hungary, 193 8....... 262 

Prices, U.S., 1928-I93S 26U 

Lard: 
Exports: 

Danube Basin, 1935-1938.. 262 

u.s., 1928-1938 , 265 

Production, U.S., 1928-1933 265 

Onions, exports, Spain, 1937,1938. 26l 
Pork: 

Exports: 

Danube Basin, 1935-1933 262 

u.s., 1928-1938 265 

Imports, U.S., 1928-1933.......... 26U 

Prices, foreign markets, 

Apr. 27, 1933. 273 

Production, U.S., 1923-1938 265 

Potatoes, plantings, Canada, 

1937*1933 26l 

Prunes, crop prospects, 

Danube Basin, 1933 259 

Wool, sales, Sydney (Australia), 

May 5, I.938.. 259